The norms are formalised by the documents produced by the institutional organisations (AFNOR, CEN, ISO). They constitute the building blocks for constructing standards and specifications. In relation to the card, they may apply to all manufacturers or to given sectors (banks, telecoms, health, transport, administration, etc.).
Standards are formalised by documents based on norms and are produced by a set of players for customisation to a more restricted level (see specifications).
Specifications are formalised by documents based on norms and standards, in a context that is narrower than the production of the standards themselves (for example within a company or a professional organisation).
CB and standardisation
From standardisation to interoperability
The essential prerequisite for interoperability is standardisation: for the CB card to be accepted everywhere in France and abroad, it must comply with shared standards. This is why CB is heavily involved in the working groups aiming for broader standardisation, and therefore greater interoperability, particularly at the European level.
In this three-stage mechanism, CB participates in public standardisation bodies such as the ISO, and also in worldwide private standardisation initiatives such as EMVCo and European initiatives within SEPA, with the very strong involvement of the various European working groups.